Energy & CO2 within Buildings
KEY DEFINITIONS:
  • Passive Ventilation: Using the convective method of warm air and the ability to control windows and vents as the environment changes to control air flow in a structure.
  • Passive Design: Considering the thermal processes of convection, conduction, absorption, and the radiation, conduction, and convection to heat a structure instead of relying on a mechanical heating system.
  • Passive Cooling: A design where ventilation and the retention of cool air are optimized instead of relying on a mechanical cooling system.

PASSIVE HEATING AND COOLING:

HEATING


Modest levels of passive solar heating can reduce building heating energy by 5% to 25%, more aggressive solar heating can reduce energy by 25% to 75%. Building techniques should be implemented from the beginning of the project taking into consideration the orientation of the building, window specifications, storage of heating to ensure high thermal mass, insulation and construction techniques. Taking all these into account will ensure your building is considerate of the environment  

    

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SUN TEMPERING

Designing your building to have south-facing windows can be a way of making your building passive. South-facing glass ideally equal 3% of total flooor area. And total direct glass gain should exceed 12% of house's floor area. More windows create a greater sense of interior space generate natural ambience to rooms in your design. However, an excess of glass can cause overheating in buildings.

INDIRECT

Usage of heavy masonary on southern-most facing walls means that sunlight is absorbed and heat is slowly released into the building over the course of the day. Water is often used to increase the thermal mass of the building.

 

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ISOLATED SOLAR GAIN (RIGHT)

This is the process involving shifting heat throughout the building using fluids (such as water) or air. Passive heating collects the sunlight in an area that can be closed off from the rest of the building. This regulates the heat coming into the building.

 

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PASSIVE COOLING

Using technology to heat and cool building by absolving the use of power. Using techniques such as cross-ventilation and exterior and interior shading devices can cool your building down to make it a habitable space. 


SHADING DEVICES (LEFT)

Shading devices are efficient in reducing solar glare with buildings with an abundance of southern-facing glass. This makes sure that the building is not at risk of overheating and users of the building are able to use the southern-facing rooms with greater comfort.

VENTILATION (PICTURED BELOW)

There are three types of building ventilation: One-sided, Cross and Stack Ventilation. These are used to keep maintain good circulation of air around the building. This must take into consideration: the building geometry, wind access, size of windows (for one-sided and cross), and possibly the usage of wind catchers.

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HEATING AND COOLING LINKS